Among pesantren hard against colonialism in shaping the organization of movement, such as Nahdlatut Wathan (Rise of Homeland) in 1916. Then in 1918 or are set Taswirul Afkar also with Nahdlatul Fikri (Rise Thinking), as a vehicle of social education and religious racial ethnic politics santris. Further didirikanlah Nahdlatut Tujjar, (Movement The merchants) became the basis for improving the economy of the people. With the advent of the Nahdlatul Tujjar, then Taswirul Afkar, other study groups also appear to be sebagi institution developed rapidly and has branches in several cities.
Meanwhile, backwardness, both mentally, as well as Indonesian economy suffered as a result or consequence restraints colonial tradition, arouse consciousness intellectuals are fighting for our dignity, through the education and organization. Movement that emerged in 1908 is known as the National Revival. Indeed continue to spread the spirit rise to any-after indigenous people aware of the suffering and ketertinggalannya with other nations, as the answer, there appears to organization wide education and liberation.
When King Ibn Saud to adopt a single base ie Wahhabi sect in Mecca, and to destroy all the relics of the pre-Islamic history or Islamic, that have so far visited because it was considered bi’dah. The idea of the Wahhabi community gets rave reviews from people modernists in Indonesia, both among Muhammadiyah under the leadership of Ahmad Dahlan, or PSII in leadership bahwah HOS Tjokroaminoto. In contrast, among the pesantren which has defended keberagaman, pushing and crushing limitations bermadzhab the legacy of civilization.
Different attitude, among pesantren removed from Congressman Al Islam in Yogyakarta in 1925, consequently among the pesantren also involved as a delegate in The conference ‘Nature Islami (Islamic Congress International) in Mecca that will confirm the decision.
Driven by a tireless passion for creating FREEDOM follow the path of the priests (:madzhab ) care about the preservation of heritage and culture, then members of the delegation had to make their own boarding school called the Hejaz Committee, headed by KH. Wahab Riza.
At the insistence among pesantren Committee gathered in the Hijaz, and challenges from all corners of the Muslims in the world, King Ibn Saud imprison his intention. The result to date in Mecca performed worship freely in accordance with their respective madhhab. That’s among the international role of the first boarding school, a fruitful and successful fight for freedom off madzhab ( follow the path of the priests ) salvage the legacy of civilization as well as very valuable.
Depart from committees and various organizations and ad hoc nature embrional, then after it felt necessary to form organizations that include more systematic and, to anticipate the times. But when incoordination with various Kiai ( expert in the science of religion and has many followers ) , finally emerging consensus to form an organization called Nahdlatul Ulama (Scholars Rise) on 16 Rajab 1344 AH (January 31, 1926). The organization is led by KH. Hashim Rais Akbar Ash’ari .
To assert this principle orgasnisai policy, then KH. QONUN of Scripture Hasyim Ash’ari formulated Rights (basic principles), then also summarized the book I’tiqad Wal Jamaat Sunni sources. The second book is then diejawantahkan ( : translated ) in Khittah NU, which made reference staff policies and NU in thought and action in the social, religious and political. (Ling resources: http://www.nu.or.id/a, public-m,-s static, detail-lang, IDS 0.1-ps-0.6 ps-t, history-.phpx)